一Direction: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition entitled Asking for Leave of Absence. You should write at least 120 words according to the following guidelines:

  Your name and role : Sam , a sophomore in English Class Two

  Your Foreign Teacher’s name : Ms.Riddle

  Incident: you cannot come to her class for some reason

  Task: write her a note , asking for leave of absence

  Asking for Leave of Absence

  To: Ms.Riddle , my dear Oral English teacher

  From: Sam , a respectful sophomore student of yours in Oral English Class Two

  Date : January 8,2005

  Subject: Asking for Leave of Absence

  Dear Ms.Riddle,

  I would like to know if I could ask for a casual leave of absence from your Oral English class this Wednesday morning.

  Yesterday evening I got a phone call from my cousin , who is now running a small firm in suburbs of this city . He needs an interpreter for two days but cannot find the most reliable person, so he wants me to have a try. Personally , I regard this as a golden opportunity to put what I have learned in your class into practice, but I need your permission of absence . If you think I may go and help him get over the difficulty, I am confident that I ‘ll do a good job and both of us will grateful.

  Earnestly yours,


  二Direction: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition entitled On Power Failure. You should write at least 120 words according to the following guidelines(given in Chinese):




  On Power Failure

  Recently, every morning when I wake up, I find my air-conditioner automatically turned off . I didn’t understand why at first , but soon I learned that there was a great shortage of electricity supply in our city – my air-conditioner turned off because of a power failure midnight.

  With the rapidly developing industry and the ever-increasing population, demand for electricity supply is soaring. Besides, summers in recent years are much hotter than before , so most working places and households are air-conditioned , which consumes additional electricity.

  Face with such a hard nut , we have to find ways to crack it . Above all , in western areas China , there is surplus of electricity supply. So , cities that are thirsty for electricity may ask for remote help. Then ,when we have electricity , we should remember to save it . Set your air-conditioners at 27C and you won’t feel less comfortable than when they are at 26C . In fact , some factories already shift their working hours to avoid the peak time of electricity consuming. My parents don’t work from Monday to Friday as before – they work form Saturday to Wednesday and have the following two days off instead. This is also a way out , isn’t it?

  三 假期即将到来,你(付萍)打算做一次为期三周的旅行,希望找个外国朋友作为游伴(Travel-mate)。拟一个寻游伴的启示,交代清楚日程安排、费用分担情况、对对方的要求,说明对方和你一起出游的好处。

  Travel-mate Wanted

  I’m a 19-year-old female sophomore named Fu Ping. I hereby earnestly invite a foreign young lady—college student preferred—to make a three – week touring trip with me.

  My plan is to set off next weekend, when the summer vacation officially begins. The first stop is Kunming, the world-renowned city for its beauty and mild temperature. We’ll get there by train and stay there for 2 days, and then we’ll head for Jinggangshan, a former revolutionary base as well as a natural beauty spot. After a 3-day visit there , we will take a long-distance coach to a nearby port city by the Changjiang River and board a downstream ship to Shanghai, so that we can enjoy the great scenery alongside the third longest river in the world. As everybody knows, Shanghai is the busiest and fastest developing city in China. I’d like to have a look at its prosperity, so the stay there will be about half a week. And a famous Chinese saying goes, ”Just as there is Paradise in heaven, there are Suzhou and Hangzhou on Earth ”, so a 4-day visit to these two cities near Shanghai is must. All together, our trip will last about three weeks.

  I only expect that my travel-mate could split the expenses with me and talk with me in beautiful English, and I would be an excellent guide for her since I major in tourist guiding.

  Those interested please contact me either through email (fuping@126.com) or phone call (52222221) .

  四Suppose you are required to write a Want Ad for the Dean. You are supposed to base this ad on the outline given below:

  Student Consultant to the Dean Wanted

  Duties: meeting with students; presenting oral and written reports; attending sessions

  Requirements: full-time student with a strong sense of responsibility

  Salary: 6000RMB an academic year

  Time Commitment : 15h weekly

  Deadline: Dec.23; to Li Meng 74543322

  The office of Dean of students is looking for a Student Consultant to the Dean for the upcoming academic year.

  Duties of this position will include: meeting with students as individuals and groups to discuss issues, opinions , problems ,complains suggestions and recommendations regarding all areas of college policy; presenting regularly oral and written reports to the Dean of students; and attending various college sessions in the capacity as the student spokesperson.

  Candidates should be full-time students of this college. The ideal applicant will be skilled in report writing and oral communication;will get along with other individuals; and will demonstrate a strong sense of responsibility.

  The salary of this position is 6000 RMB an academic year, and the time required for this job is 15 hours a week. Applicants can make a telephone call to Li Meng before Dec.23. The phone number is 74543322

  五Away from Net-bar Campaign




  Away from Net-bar Campaign

  It has been reported that a middle school in Xuzhou City has recently launched a campaign named “Away from Net-bar”. More than a thousand students have signed for their solemn promise that they will not spend a single minute in the net-bars. With the nearing of the summer vacation, this campaign is especially meaningful for the healthy development of the minors.

  The internet has brought people great convenience in getting information, entertainment and contact with others, and it has also benefited some businessmen, especially the owner of net-bars. While it is true that most net-bars are running legally, it is also true that some are offering unhealthy programs that involve violence and sex content. Since most middle school students are prone to be influenced and they can hardly tell which bars are doing well and which ones are not, it is only advisable that they stay away from all. Besides , staying away from net-bars also does good to students’ physical health. By passively sitting too long in front of the computer screen, both their eyesight and physique suffer.

  Obviously , the Away from Net-bars Campaign is an activity that is worth advocating and it merits other schools’ reference

  六Online Education




  Being online is no longer something strange in our life. To some degree, it has become part of our daily life. We can do a lot of things online, such as searching for information and communicating with friends far and near. But recently another helpful online activity has become very “in”. That is online education.

  Why could online education be so popular within such a short period of time? Among other reasons, the quick development of the internet should be an essential one, which makes all our dreams of attending class in the distance possible. Another underlying reason is the quick development of both society and technology. Today ,modern science and technology is developing with lightening speed. To catch up with this development we all feel an urgent and strong desire to study. However , due to the great pace of modern society , many people are too busy to study full time at school. Online education just comes to their aid.

  Personally , I appreciate this new form of education. It’s indeed a helpful complement to the traditional educational means. It can provide different learners with more flexible and versatile ways of learning. Most of all ,with online education, we can sick to our jobs and at the same time study and absorb the latest knowledge.

  七 Air Pollution


  health , surrounded by , smog , anything but , gases , impurities , absorb , poisonous , try hard , blacked out

  We all know that clean air is important to good health. Wherever you go and whatever you do, you are always surrounded by a sea of gases that we call air. If there are impurities in the air, they may be absorbed by our bodies and make us ill. We need clean air, but unfortunately , air pollution is globally present , especially in cities.

  Many large cities are anything but pollution-free. Our cities have many factories, which we need to make food, clothing and other things. Every year these factories pour millions upon millions of tons of smog into air. Power plants and houses that burn coal add greatly to air pollution. Besides , there are more cars in cities now. Once out on the streets, they will take in fresh air and replace it with poisonous gases.

  Our country is trying hard to prevent and control air pollution. As long as every citizen also realizes its importance and makes join efforts, the day will come soon when people will take in only clean air. Then , the sunlight will no longer be blackened out by smoke and soot.

  八Direction: Read the following ad carefully , and you, by name of Wang Peng , are then asked to write a reply to apply for the job. Remember to send your letter to the company as given in the ad. You should write about 120 words.








  Department of Human Resources

  Lansheng Building

  No. 8560 , Huaihai Zhong Road

  Shanghai , 200033

  Wang Peng

  No.31020, Zhongshan Road

  Xu Hui District

  Shanghai , 200076

  January 8th, 2005

  Dear Sir or Madam,

  I learned from Beijing Youth Daily Jan.2 that your company is offering a position for a secretary, and it’s a great pleasure for me to write to explore the possibility of seeking the job.

  I graduated two years form ** University, and obtained a bachelor’s degree in the field of business management. During my stay in the university my major courses included macro-economics , business communication skills marketing and computer applications. I was especially fond of the communication skills which enabled me to deal with people and thing around well.

  Upon graduation I engaged with HP China Branch as an assistant to the head of Marketing Department. My responsibilities consisted of carrying out market surveys, writing reports and organizing meetings within the department. This is two-year experience has helped me a lot in many ways. In particular, I become increasingly aware of the importance of co-ordination and co-operation among co-workers. I also believe the experience will qualify me for the current vacancy in your company.

  I passed CET-6 with high marks. My spoken English is also fluent enough to organize meetings in English , which was actually my routine work in HP. Most of my market reports were presented in English , as my former boss is a native English speaker.

  I enclose herein my resume and some relevant documents as required. And if you need any further information on me, I also refer you to Mr.Johnson, my ex-colleague, who is available at 021-66668888.

  I appreciate your sincere consideration of me, and am looking forward to an early interview with you.

  Sincerely yours,

  Wang Peng

  九To Be a small Fish in a Big Pond or a Big Fish in a Small Pond?




  Just as there are

  distinct differences between being a small fish is a big pond and a big fish in a small pond, so it is with working as a subordinate in a large enterprise and presiding in a small firm.

  With the former, you can derive a deep sense of satisfaction from being a member of a well-known organization such as General Motors, or the Bell Telephone System. You have the opportunities of learning from experienced executives and knowing about the standard working process.With the latter, you have greater responsibilities and your decision may bring immediate effect. Normally you are expose to various experiences and expected to do a great many thing without much help or guidance.

  Personally I prefer to work in a small enterprise, where my prospect of promotion is good as long as I work hard. To tell the truth , I’d rather become a well-known and important figure within my own small pond.

  十Styles of Living




  Some people enjoy living together with their parents after they have grown up. They hold the opinion because , living with parents , they can take better care of their parents and vice versa. Meanwhile , they can turn to their parents for help if they get into trouble or have some difficulties. To them, life in a big family seems to be more enjoyable than that in a small family.

  Others, however , prefer to live separately. They cherish the idea to be independent of their parents, seek more freedom and wish to have a place of their own, in which they can do what they like. Bedsides , they don’t want to be overprotected by their parents but long for chance to face the society by themselves.

  As to me , I like an independent life style in spite of the fact I love my parents. Different generations have different life styles and values. What one generations likes may not be another generation’s fondness. Living separately , each generation can enjoy different value. In addition , by leading an independent life , I can train my character and develop my own ability to deal with things encountered in my life.

  十一My View on the income Gap




  Now the income gap is getting wider and wider. In some privately owned firms, joint-ventures, or foreign-funded companies , an executive’s yearly income is ten times or even a hundred times as much as an ordinary worker’s

  Faced with this situation, people will undoubtedly have different opinions. Some believe that it benefits the social and economic development since driving force is often derived from the gap. In other words , the gap inspires people and gives a push to advancement. Other speak of its side effect: income gap is often the root of social unrest and also contrary to our country’s principle.

  From my point of view, while it is true that the income may stimulate the social development to some extent, it causes trouble as well. An income gap that is too wide for most people to bear can neither contribute to the stability of a country nor promote its economic development. Therefore , while we are advocating the rapid development of our country , we should tolerate the narrow income gap but narrow the wide one.

  十二 The Teacher-Student Relationship




  A good teacher-student relationship is ab1e to effective1y further the student to a higher level in study. The teacher with patience and understanding encourages the student instead of pushing or forcing him. The relationship of this sort makes learning so enjoyable and funny that the student would work hard willingly.

  However, a bad relationship seriously weakens the achievement of teaching. It discourages the student from 1earning, leaving him with a wrong and negative attitude towards studying. Thus, teaching also becomes an unpleasant task, which forms a vicious cycle.

  As I see it, the relationship between a teacher and a student should be attached much importance to. A good relationship makes the teacher’s job worthwhile while a bad one ill-affects the student’s development, even to the rest of his life.

  十三Turn off Your Mobile Phone




  With the development of information techno1ogy and reduced price of communication products, the mobi1e phone has become a necessity for most people. Obviously, it shortens the distance between people and makes our life more convenient. Thanks to it, it’s easy for us to contact or be contacted by others anytime and anywhere. We will never miss any important meetings,great deals or admirable opportunities。

  But,have you noticed sometimes the mobile phone also brings embarrassment to us? It’s not rare to see someone pressing the mobile phone to his ear and shouting 1oud1y in public as if there were no one else present. And I’m sure each one has had such an experience that the mobi1e phone ring continuous1y on a formal occasion. Perhaps these People have many 1ife-and-death reasons to keep the phone working at all times, but it interrupts people around them who have to hear what they don’t care when they want to concentrate on what they’re doing.

  So if you are one of them, please shut off your cell phone in public, especially on a quiet and serious occasion. It’s a respect for both others and yourself.

  十四Traveling by Train or by Plane




  When we go on a business trip, we will be faced with the choice of traveling by train or by plane. Before making the right choice,we had better make a close comparison and contrast of them.

  First of all, a train will take us to our target railway station. Also, a plane will take us to the target airport, Second, in a train we can enjoy the beautiful scenery of the countryside. Likewise, in a plane we can command a good view of fields, buildings, mountains and even plains of clouds. Despite these similarities, they differ in the following aspects. First, a train ticket is cheap. Most of us can afford it. However, a plane ticket is about twice as expensive as a train ticket. Most of us grudge paying for it. Besides, it is safer to travel by train. If the train gets into some trouble, we may survive by jumping out of it. On the contrary, if we travel by plane, we have to ask God to bless us. However, it takes us longer time to travel by train than by plane.

  Therefore, it depends which transportation tool we should choose. If we just want to save money,we will travel by train; but if we want to save time, we will turn to the plane.

  十五Foreign Investment




  The merit of foreign investments 1ies in many aspects。It increases capital investment in our economic construction, speeds up the technical innovation in our enterprises and accelerates our output. In brief, the foreign investment Plays an important m1e in the modernization of our country.

  Thanks to the foreign investment, great changes have taken place in our economic construction. Many new and advanced enterprises have been set up, old enterprises have been revolutionized and the living standards of our Peop1e have been great1y improved. All these have something to do with the foreign investment.

  Then, how can we attract more foreign investment? We must maintain our country’s stability to create a good investment environment. Meanwhile we should carry out some favorable policies, making the foreign businessmen believe that to invest in China does pay off. Only in this way can we further attract and secure foreign investment.

  十六 Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a letter. Suppose you are Jill. Write a letter to your friend Li Fang. You should write at least 120 words according to the situation given below in Chinese:


  Dear Fang,

  I understand that you are in a dilemma. Although so many graduates are eager to set feet on their work-life road, there are still some who prefer to start their new life after gaining another degree to make better preparation for entering society. In my opinion, the latter are more admirable. You are good at all your course these years, so if you do like to spend another two or three years on campus, you should stick to it. In today’s society, the achievement and status you can get and the devotion you can make are no doubt in proportion to your educational background and degrees, coupled with the efforts you put in them. If you want to stride to your destinations more smoothly and easily, why not head for the further study courageously?

  Whichever you choose, I firmly believe your industry will ensure your success. After all, it is you who have the finally say on the final choice.

  Best wishes,

  Yours sincerely

  十七Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic: My View on the post-graduate Craze. You should write at least 120 words and base yourcomposition on the outline (given in Chinese) below:

  1 目前考研究生形成热潮

  2 我认为这股热潮的原因是……

  My View on the Post-graduate Craze

  Every year, million of college students will sit in for the post-graduate entrance examination. More and more students have regarded the pursuing of a master degree as an indispensable part of their education. What is to account for their enthusiasm for a post-graduate diploma?

  First, it is the demand of the time. In an age of knowledge updating and information explosion, what you have learned in college can hardly meet the demand of society. Talents of high quality who are equipped with the latest knowledge and skill will be needed more than ever. That is why many students will further their studies.

  Second, we all recognize that the more education you have, the more likely you are to succeed. Compared with those without a master degree, masters will enjoy more preferential treatment, for example, better salaries, more opportunities for promotion and training. A post-graduate degree can guarantee a more promising career.

  Last but not least, with the graduation of a large number of college students, competition for jobs becomes more and more fierce. One way to gain some advantage over others is to have a higher degree.

  No wonder millions of students will consider pursuing a post-graduate degree.

  十八Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic: Something I admire about the Western Culture. You should write at least 120 words according to the outline given below :

  1.Is there anything in the Western culture you admire?

  2.What is it (are they) and why do you like it (them)?

  Something I Admire about the Western Culture

  Despite the cultural conflicts between the Orient and the Occident, there do exist some admirable ingredients in the Western culture.

  First and foremost, the equality between parents and children. The parents are not always superior to their children, and the children do not always need to obey their parents order, that is, they are more like close friends.

  Second, the independent personality. Western people have a strong sense of supporting themselves and being independent. They begin earning their pocket money early in their life, even as kids.

  Last, Western people do not always assess a person according to his background. If only he can achieve success through personal struggle, he can win status. It’s a talent-oriented society, not background-oriented.

  All the above mentioned are what I admire in the western culture and what I think we Chinese should learn.

  十九Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic: Campus Life. You should write at least 120 words according to the situation given below in Chinese:




  Campus Life

  Early in senior high school, we longed to be enrolled in a university. Now the dream has come true. But how do we college students like our campus life?

  Certainly, some relish it, finding it colorful and rewarding. Besides study, they spend considerable amount of time improving themselves in various aspect. Yet others do not think much of their college life, thus do not benefit as much. In their eyes, the university is just a bigger high school. The only difference is that they have more time at their disposal without parents looking over their shoulder.

  As to me, college life is ideal if only I have abundant books to read, some bosom friends to keep me company, a couple of conscientious professors to instruct me, and an easy access to the Internet.

  二十Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic My Opinion on Advertisement. You should write at least 120 words and you should base your composition on the outline below:

  Some people hold the idea that the advertisement is a necessary evil in modern life. What do you think?

  My Opinion on Advertisement

  As is known to all, angels and evils are poles apart. But is there anything that combines the two perfectly? Some there is-the advertisement.

  With the growing influence of mass media, advertising invades every aspect of our lives. Whenever we turn on the TV, look through a newspaper, open the mailbox, or surf on the Internet, advertisements would immediately jump into our sight. As they make things so attractive, we often end up buying things that we do not really need. Advertising not only adds to the price of the goods, thus harming the consumer’s interest, but also imposes a kind of materialistic value upon the audience.

  But that is only part of the story-advertisements are informative as well as persuasive. They provide us with up-to-date information about the latest products. Some advertisements are so elegantly presented that we are inspired or even moved. No matter it is an evil or an angel, advertisement has become an indispensable part of our modern life.

  二十一Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic: What does friendship mean? You should write at least 120 words and you shouldbase your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below:




  What does friendship mean?

  There is no definite answer. An eternal theme in literature, friendship is also indispensable in daily life.

  Friendship is to our life what salt is to dishes. When you are happy, friendship is just like adding flowers on the brocade; when you are sad, friendship is a dose of consolation; if you are in trouble, friends will surround you and remove the barriers for you; if you have a hard nut to crack, you can turn to friends for help. We admire the great friendship between Marx and Engel, which firmly combined them and pushed them forward on the road to exploring and fulfilling Communism.

  Friendship isn’t almighty, but no one can live happily without it.

  二十二On Overseas Study




  With the deepening of reform and opening—up of our country, many people dream of going abroad for further study. They insist that the modern research facilities, world famous professors and excellent environment in those foreign co11eges and universities can help lay a perfect foundation for their future development.

  However, there are still many people who favor studying at home. They argue that studying abroad is too expensive and therefore doesn’t pay, They also Point out that there are no language and cu1tural barriers if they study in our country,

  Just as the old saying goes, ”Every advantage has its disadvantage.” Both opinions are acceptable in some sense. If students have the chance and financial resources, they should seize the opportunity to go abroad and broaden their eyes. On the other hand, if conditions don’t permit, they can pursue their studies in top universities at home. What counts is not the place where they study, but what they can learn.

  二十三Private Tutoring




  Private tutoring is “in”.A recent investigation shows that about 80 percent of pupils have private tutors,

  Such a popular practice indicates that people are attaching greater importance to education. Many parents, for various reasons,missed the chance of obtaining a good education. when their children meet with difficulties in study, they arc helpless, Private tutoring is the only solution. As private tutoring is usually one-to-one, the teacher knows the strong points as we11 as the weak points of the pupil, clearly.

  However, private tutoring has its own disadvantages, for one thing, it takes up so much of the pupils’ time that they can hardly find enough time for rest and entertainment, which are essential for their physical and mental health. For another, some teachers, busy“shuttling” from one family to another, tend to neglect their regular teaching duties. What’s more, some teachers are eager to help pupils do well in the test, offering the so-ca11ed tips for test-taking Father than help them acquire what is more meaningful.

  Generally speaking, its disadvantages outweigh its advantages. Greater emphasis should be laid on classroom teaching and practice, on the improvement of teaching quality and on the tapping of the pupils’ potentials. Only in this way can we generation be healthily brought up.

  二十四Directions: For this part you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic City Problems. You should write no less than 120 words and base your composition on the outline below:




  City Problems

  Nowadays, millions of migrant workers flock into cities in search of jobs and better living. However, with the sharp rise in the urban population, many problems arise in the development of cities.

  Firstly, cities become more and more crowded, putting much pressure upon transportation, housing, sanitation, education, employment and so on. City services and facilities have been strained to a breaking point. Secondly, a growing number of private cars emit huge amount of carbon dioxide, leaving the air mercilessly polluted. What is more, the city is also threatened by rising crime. Not a single day passes without the report of someone being robbed, kidnapped or murdered. Last but not least, city-dwellers are not only separated from the natural world but also isolated from each other, even not knowing the name of their next-door neighbor.

  All these problems have harmed the attractiveness of the city. Unless there is some improvement, more and more people may seek to live in the suburbs.

  二十五Direction: For this part you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic Cars and Air Pollution. You should write no less than 120 words and base your composition on the outline below:




  Car and Air Pollution

  Too many cars have created a lot of serious problems in our world. Besides congestion, accidents and fast fuel consumption, cars are responsible for a good part of air pollution in big cities. All the time, they are pumping huge amounts of waste gases into the atmosphere. These gases are very harmful, causing disease and even death.

  One possible solution is to design and develop clean cars and clean fuels. In Shanghai, some of the public buses begin to run on natural gas, which does not give off as much carbon dioxide as the petrol. But it may take decades for the new models of clean cars completely replace the traditional ones.

  Another solution is to develop modern public transportation systems and restrict the use of private cars. If the price of petrol rises constantly and the public vehicles are efficient and convenient enough, most people will not buy private cars. And the total number of cars in big cities will reduce greatly.

  On the whole, the elimination of air pollution needs the collective efforts from the government, the public and the environmentalists.

  二十六 Overseas Study at an Early Age




  Nowadays more and more parents are eager to send their children to study abroad before they finish high school by whatever means and at whatever cost.

  It is quite understandable for parents to send their children to study overseas because they place high expectations on their children. They are encouraged by the success stories of those who have completed their overseas study. With the development of economy, companies and institutions at home are giving more and more emphasis on overseas experiences, too. Consequently, pursuing overseas study became a kind of short cut in gaining a better future. Moreover, there is still one underlying reason for this rush-economic reason. The rapid economic progress in the past few years in China has enabled more and more parents to afford the huge cost for their children’s overseas study.

  As for me, overseas study is surely a helpful way to get both advanced knowledge and necessary experiences, but overseas study at an early age is neither necessary nor benef1cial. The students may be too young to either tend for themselves or think for themselves. I do think that overseas study can contribute to one’s self-improvement, but it’s better to be pursued after one has finished his college study at home, when he is more capable of learning and living on his own.

  二十七 Statistics of Family Expenses in Shanghai

   1980 1990 2000

  Food & Clothing 68% 45% 20%

  Recreation 3% 5% 8%

  Education 6% 16% 22%

  Health Care 6% 10% 16%

  Others 17% 24% 35%




  As is shown in the table above, dramatic changes have taken place in family expenses in the City of Shanghai within two decades (from 1980 to 2000). The most obvious change is in expense on food and clothing, which has dropped by 48%, while those on recreation, education and health care have increased respectively by 5%, l6% and l0%. Expenses on other things keep rising from 17% to 35%.

  The statistics of rise and fall seem to exist in isolation but are in fact closely related to one another. The most likely factors accounting for these changes are as follows:

  Development in economy is the fundamental one. The increased income results in the lowering percentage of food and clothing. That is to say, a small percentage of the total income is enou5h to cover food and clothing expenses.

  Another factor lies in the development of people’s concept. When people are well fed and well dressed, they begin to interest themselves in recreation and education.

  These changes should also be attributed to social reforms. In the 1990’s, college education was not totally free as it was before, which also accounts for the rising expenses on education. Soon after, the government gradually stopped offering houses to its citizens without charges. People had to save a large proportion of their money for housing. That’s partly why the expenses for ”others” doubled.

  As for the more expenses on health care, I figure there are two main reasons: the cancellation of free medical care and people’s awareness of the importance of health.

  The changes reflect the development of the city and indicate that people are enjoying more.

  二十八 On Space Project

  给《**周刊》宇航专栏的编辑写 ,说明你对太空探索项目的态度(支持或反对),并简单陈述你的理由。

  Dear Editor,

  Thank you for your starting a specia1 co1umn jor the discussion on space projects. Frankly, it seems to me that our space projects so far have been in the main a waste of money, time, energy, human lives and resources.

  The richer countries are pouring large sums of money into space research programs which are of no benefit to human beings while in underdeveloped countries thousands of people are dying of hunger. Besides, many scientists’ time and energy are wasted, which could have been devoted to improving our living condition. What’s more, many astronauts have died complete1y uselessly in space vehicles which have been faulty. They were young people who hadn’t enjoyed the fruit of life yet.

  Apart from human wastage, there is the wastage of resources which are finite and essential if man is to survive. I think it’s high time we stopped these meaningless programs.